Withdrawal Agreement Backstop Text

Withdrawal Agreement Backstop Text

In October 2019, the new Johnson government renegotiated the bill and replaced the backstop. In the new protocol, the whole of the UK leaves the EU customs union as a single customs territory. Northern Ireland will be included in all future UK trade agreements, but will have no tariffs or restrictions on goods crossing the Irish border in either direction, creating a de facto customs border along the Irish Sea with the UK. There is also a unilateral withdrawal mechanism which allows the Northern Ireland Assembly to leave the minutes by a simple majority. [1] [2] [3] This new protocol has been called by some “Chequers for Northern Ireland” because it is comparable to Theresa May`s future plan for future relations at Chequers, which had already been rejected by the EU and criticised by Johnson. [3] At the request of the United Kingdom, the European Council (Article 50) provided further clarification on the “backstop” solution provided for in the Protocol to the Withdrawal Agreement on Ireland and Northern Ireland, intended to serve as an insurance policy to avoid a hard border on the island of Ireland. The Republic of Ireland has the second highest gross domestic product per capita in the EU after Luxembourg, thanks to a favourable corporate tax system and its membership of the European single market. [12] Around 85% of Ireland`s global freight exports pass through ports in the UK, of which around half are destined for the UK, while half of them transit through the EU via Dover and Calais. [13] Using the UK as a “land bridge” is fast (it takes 10.5 hours for the Dublin-Holyhead-Dover-Calais route)[14], but could be affected by customs controls in Wales and Calais in the event of a no-deal Brexit.

Indeed, without a trade agreement, trade relations on goods between the United Kingdom and the EU (including the Republic) would revert to the conditions of accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO). These stipulate that the same tariffs and controls must be applied without distinction between all WTO Members (most-favoured-nation test), unless some Members have concluded a trade agreement. [15] This principle would also apply to cross-border trade in Ireland in the absence of a trade agreement. .